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Earth and Environmental Sciences

Photo of Dr Kathryn Moore

Dr Kathryn Moore

Senior Lecturer in Critical and Green Technology Metals

 01326 255693


Office telephone: +44 (0)1326 255693

Kate Moore gained degree qualifications in geology (BSc), experimental petrology (PhD) and archaeology (Dip) from the University of Edinburgh, University of Bristol and National University of Ireland, Galway. She led the Magmatic Studies Group at the National University of Ireland, Galway from 1999 and moved to the Camborne School of Mines in 2012, as lecturer in Critical and Green Technology Metals. She was Expert Council Leader in HiTech AlkCarb (New Geomodels to explore deeper for High-Technology critical raw materials in Alkaline rocks and Carbonatites) and Project Lead for IMP@CT (Integrated Modular Plant and Containerised Tools for selective, low-impact mining of small, high-grade deposits). She is a Diversity Champion in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. In 2023, she received the RCPS medal award in recognition of outstanding acheivements and contribution to Cornwall in the field of science.

Research interests:

  • Whole systems perspectives on security of resource supply, particularly for the raw materials used in the low-carbon energy technologies. 
  • The geological concentration of the technology metals that may be subject to critically short supply. 
  • Processes operating at depth in critical metal-hosting magmatic systems such as carbonatites and alkaline rocks.
  • The ethics of mining for an extended and diversified set of technology metals: sustainable and responsible practice.

Unesco Lecture Series: Suppliers, consumers and the global minerals supply chain

Podcast on small scale mining: New models for Extracting Mineral Resources, hosted by Caelen Burand 

Podcast on geoscience communication: Episode 38 New Horizons in GeoScience Communication, hosted by the Society of Economic Geologists

Book: Of Earth, For Earth: The meaning of a Mine

Recent External appointments:

  • Deputy Editor of Geoenergy (2022 onwards)
  • Trustee of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall (2022 onwards)
  • External Examiner for geology, University of Brighton (2020-2024)
  • Member of the Time and Tide working group (2017 - present)

Teaching contributions:

  • CSM2051 Magmatism and Metamorphism (module leader and lecturer)
  • CSM2910 Magmatic and Metamorphic Processes (lecturing)
  • CSM3059 Evolution of Earth and Planetary Systems  (module leader and lecturer)
  • CSM3379 BSc Summer Vacation Project (project supervisor)
  • CSM3070 Volcanology (lecturing)
  • CSM3071 Geological history of life on Earth (lecturing)
  • CSMM436 Materials handling, dewatering and waste management (module leader and lecturer)
  • CSMM047 MSc Research Project (project supervisor)
  • CSMM439 MGEOL Research Project (project supervisor)
  • CSMM440 Research Frontiers in Earth Science 

Academic Qualifications and Affiliations:

  • Diploma in Archaeology, National University of Ireland Galway 2006
  • PhD ‘Melting of a Carbonated Mantle’, University of Bristol 1999
  • B.Sc. (Hons.) Geology, University of Edinburgh 1994
  • Member of the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • Fellow of the Geological Society of London

Professional History:

  • Senior Lecturer in Critical and Green Technology Metals, Camborne School of Mines (2018-present)
  • Lecturer in Critical and Green Technology Metals, Camborne School of Mines (2012-2018)
  • Lecturer in Geology, National University of Ireland Galway 1999-2012
  • Part-time lecturer in Geology, University of Bristol 1997-1998
  • Air Quality Monitoring Officer, DFID (Montserrat Volcano Observatory) 1998

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Copyright Notice: Any articles made available for download are for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the copyright holder.

| 2024 | 2023 | 2022 | 2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2016 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2002 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 |



  • Moore K, Diallo P. (2023) Actions that seek to reduce global inequality will reshape complex supply chains for critical raw materials. [PDF]
  • Moore K. (2023) The geoscience of low carbon supply chains, Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2023, Mendrisio. Switzerland, 17th - 18th Nov 2023,
  • Doyle K. (2023) The safety and sustainability of mining at diverse scales: Placing health and safety at the core of responsibility.
  • Valenini L, Moore K, Bediako M. (2023) Sustainable Sourcing of Raw Materials for Construction: From the Earth to the Moon and Beyond, Elements: An International Magazine of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology, volume 18, pages 327-332, DOI:10.2138/gselements.18.5.327.
  • Moore K, Segura-Salazar J. (2023) The hype is out of this world, but mining in space won’t save the Earth.
  • Moore KR, Moles NR, Rollinson GK, Lusty PAJ. (2023) Mechanisms for concentrating critical metals in granitic complexes: insights from the Mourne Mountains, Northern Ireland, Geoenergy, volume 1, no. 1, pages geoenergy2023-geoenergy2023, DOI:10.1144/geoenergy2023-023.





  • Deady E, Moore K, Goodenough KM, Rollinson G, Boyce A, Sośnicka M, Shail RK. (2019) Controls on antimony mineralisation in ‘cross-course’ veining in SW England, Applied Earth Science, volume 128, no. 2, pages 44-44, DOI:10.1080/25726838.2019.1602935.
  • Paneri A, Yan X, Moore K, Moradi S. (2019) Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainable Mining.
  • Moore K, Sidorenko O, Paneri A, Roberts D. (2019) Conflict and critical raw materials production: a tale of antimony production in the Balkans.
  • Moore K. (2019) Resourcing modern industries by responsive mining solutions. [PDF]




  • Deady E, Moore KR. (2014) The Key to Understanding Antimony Mineralisation in South West England — the North Herodsfoot Mine?.
  • Moore KR, Lusty PJL, Moles NR. (2014) Mechanisms for concentrating critical metals in granite complexes: insight from the Mourne Mountains, Northern Ireland.
  • Deady E, Moore KR. (2014) Mineral Deposit research using legacy collections and historic mine sites: a case study of tungsten (-bismuth) mineralisation in southwest England, 37th Annual Meeting, Mineral Deposits Study Group, Oxford.
  • Moles NR, Moore KR, Rollinson GK, Lusty PJL. (2014) Spatial distribution of heavy minerals in stream sediment concentrates, Mourne Mountains, Northern Ireland.


  • Kavecsanszki D, Moore KR, Rollinson GK, Wall F, Lusty PJL. (2013) Magma mingling between sulphide-rich and carbonatite magmas to form a multi-commodity metal deposit: reconstruction using QEMSCAN® analysis, Mineral Deposit Research for a High-Tech World, volume 1-4, pages 1024-1027.
  • Moore KR. (2013) The origin of MREE- and HREE-enrichments in carbonatites: evidence from field, petrographic and experimental investigations, 36th Annual Meeting, Mineral Deposits Study Group, Leicester.
  • Moore KR, Lusty PJL, Moles NR. (2013) Critical Metal potential of the Mourne Mountains: the geological source of REE, Nb, Ta, W and U anomalies – insights from Tellus data. Scientific Research Services for the Tellus Border Project: Final Report Project Reference. 10761.


  • Brady AE, Moore KR. (2012) A mantle-derived dolomite silicocarbonatite from the southwest of Ireland, Mineralogical Magazine, volume 76, pages 357-376.
  • Brady AE, Moore K. (2012) A mantle-derived dolomite silicocarbonatite from the southwest coast of Ireland, Mineralogical Magazine, volume 76, no. 2, pages 357-376, DOI:10.1180/minmag.2012.076.2.06.
  • Moore KR. (2012) Experimental study in the Na2O–CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–CO2 system at 3 GPa: the effect of sodium on mantle melting to carbonate-rich liquids and implications for the petrogenesis of silicocarbonatites, Mineralogical Magazine, volume 76, no. 2, pages 285-309.


  • Costanzo A, Moore KR, Feely M. (2010) Zoning of copper mineralization away from an igneous heat source at Allihies, Co. Cork, Ireland: mineral and fluid inclusion evidence, International Mineralogical Association, Budapest, 21st - 27th Aug 2010.
  • Breheny C, Moore KR, Costanzo A, Feely M. (2010) Magma-sediment-water interaction: a precursor to base metal mineralisation?, International Mineralogical Association, Budapest, 21st - 27th Aug 2010.
  • Brady AE, Moore KR. (2010) The kinship between lamprophyres and carbonatites: evidence from the south coast of Ireland, International Mineralogical Association, Budapest, 21st - 27th Aug 2010.
  • Moore KR, Brady AE, Dempsey C. (2010) Magma mingling and mantle xenolith transport in the feeder system of diatreme root zones: evidence from the south coast of Ireland, International Mineralogical Association, Budapest, 21st Aug 2012 - 27th Aug 2010.
  • Doroshkevitch AG, Ripp GS, Moore KR. (2010) Genesis of the Khaluta alkaline-basic Ba-Sr carbonatite complex (West Transbaikalia, Russia), Mineralogy and Petrology, volume 98, pages 245-268.
  • Gwalani LG, Moore KR, Simonetti A. (2010) Carbonatites, alkaline rocks and the mantle: a special issue dedicated to Keith Bell. Editorial, Mineralogy and Petrology, volume 98, pages 5-10.
  • Valentini L, Moore KR, Chazot G. (2010) Unravelling carbonatite–silicate magma interaction dynamics: A case study from the Velay province (Massif Central, France), Lithos, volume 116, pages 53-64.



  • Breheny C, Moore KR. (2008) Shallow magmatic processes in the Ordovician ocean floor: juvenile clast morphology and compositional variation in peperite from the Bunmahon Formation, County Waterford, Ireland, 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo, 6th - 14th Aug 2008. [PDF]
  • Breheny C, Moore KR. (2008) Self guided field excursions to ocean floor processes in the Copper Coast Geopark of County Waterford, Ireland, 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo, 6th - 14th Aug 2008. [PDF]
  • Brady AE, Moore KR. (2008) The role of carbonate in alkaline ultramafic magmatism, 9th International Kimberlite Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 10th - 15th Aug 2008.
  • Moore KR, Ryan KM. (2008) Prehistorical and historical landscapes at the Killadangan Complex, Ireland: Evidence from geoarchaeology, geomythology and placenames, The 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo, 6th - 14th Aug 2008. [PDF]
  • Moore KR. (2008) Ocean floor lavas in County Waterford, Earth Science Ireland, volume 3, pages 8-11.
  • Moore KR, Augustine S, Bunch R, Lauson P. (2008) Oldest birchbark Canadian canoe in the world being restored: conservation of a 19th century Wolastoqiyik birchbark canoe from the collections of the James Mitchell Geology Museum, NUI Galway, Galway’s Heritage/Oidhreacht na Gaillimhe, volume 16-17, pages 4-8.


  • Costanzo A, Moore KR, Wall F, Feely M. (2006) Fluid inclusions in apatite from Jacupiranga calcite carbonatites: evidence for a fluid-stratified carbonatite magma chamber, Lithos, volume 91, pages 208-228.
  • Moore KR. (2006) Prehistoric gold markers and environmental change: a two-age system for standing stones in western Ireland, Geoarchaeology: an international journal, volume 21, no. 2, pages 155-170.
  • Costanzo A, Moore KR, Wall F, Feely M. (2006) Fluid inclusions in apatite from Jacupiranga calcite carbonatites: Evidence for a fluid-stratified carbonatite magma chamber, LITHOS, volume 91, no. 1-4, pages 208-228, DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2006.03.047. [PDF]


  • Costanzo A, Feely M, Moore KR. (2005) The application of Laser Raman Spectroscopy to Fluid Inclusion Studies: A case study from Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Massif, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, Proceedings of International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), volume 5826, pages 110-118.


  • Costanzo A, Feely M, Moore KR. (2004) Microthermometry of fluid inclusions from Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif and Jacupiranga Complex, São Paulo State, Brazil, 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy, 20th - 28th Aug 2004.
  • Moore KR, Ryan PD. (2004) A Lithospheric Eclogite Source for Carbonatite, 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy, 20th - 28th Aug 2004.
  • Moore KR. (2004) Historical use of stone and metal in western Ireland, Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, volume 56, pages 1-21.


  • Moore KR, Duffell H, Nicholl A, Searl A. (2002) Monitoring of airborne particulate matter during the eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Geological Society, London, Memoirs, volume 21, pages 557-566.


  • Moore KR. (2000) Respirable Ash in Volcanic Eruptions, The Irish Scientist Yearbook, volume 7.


  • Moore KR. (1999) Geoscience Probes Mantle Secrets, The Irish Scientist Yearbook, volume 6.


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Further information

Small-scale mining

Since demand is increasing for a wide array of technology metals, there is a critical need to examine how mining solutions can be diversified and extended with minimal negative impacts. The current mining paradigm is centred around large-scale operations uting the economies of scale. But there are existing and feasible technologies for selective mining of small ore-deposits by small-scale operations. There is a difference between mining of small deposits and small-scale mining operations. Small deposits are necessarily described using geological and metallurgical terms, in order to engineer mining and processing solutions. The practice of mining small deposits transects historical and contemporary narratives: Many of the opportunities for future mining lie in former mining districts that were never exhausted of mineral deposits, but that suffered the impacts of mining that was not environmentally or socially regulated. Scale describes the size and complexity of mining operations and their social and environmental impacts, both positive and negative. Small-scale mining operations may be used on small ore deposits and also on large ore deposits for project staging reasons. The re-direction of small deposit mining is described by Moore et al (2020).

Small-scale mining will have smaller and shorter duration economic and environmental impacts than large-scale mining of low-grade ores. Opportunities exist to consider mining of small deposits as part of locally-diversified economies, remediated environments, and geographically-dispersed and secure raw materials supply. Small-scale mining is not supported by current trade, reporting and finance models. But increasing global demands for best practice, equitable distribution of opportunities and reduction of carbon emissions are external forces that may create a climate amenable to the expansion of mining of small deposits.

IMP@CT is an acronym for ‘Integrated mobile modularised plant and containerised tools for selective, low-impact mining of small, high-grade deposits’. The project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant No 730411 (2016-2020). The IMP@CT project partners investigated the potential to expand European capacity to access its regional resources, following from four key traits of the whole system:

  1. Risk of raw material supply disruption can be reduced by accelerating the response of mining to market demand, facilitated by access to multiple small deposits in Europe.
  2. A new mining paradigm is needed that does not rely on extensive investment and the economies of scale.
  3. Energy demand and mine waste should be reduced by limiting the volume of rock removed from the ground and crushed.
  4. Mining solutions should have a minimal footprint to support multiple land uses for high population density, and an ethical relationship with community.

The project partners developed technological readiness for non-artisanal, sustainable small-scale mining that would be suitable for extraction of metals from small ore deposits in Europe, based on understanding of minerals processing circuits (e.g. Segura-Salazar and Brito-Parada, 2021). A new selective underground mining tool was designed and developed with small size to reduce the size of underground workings and leave rock in place. The cutting head was designed to control the size of particles at the rock face, reducing the need for subsequent crushing of rock (Celtic Miner 4500 Midi). Waste material was further separated from metal-rich rock, prior to crushing by ore sorting technology (Rados). A portable processing plant was designed and developed to adapt to different ore deposits. All of the technological infrastructure was designed to be mobilised in 20-foot long containerised modules, so that it could be transported to ore deposits located in rugged terrains and rapidly deployed in a configuration that has a small environmental footprint. The component parts were integrated and tested on two mine sites in the west Balkans in 2019. The first deployment was at the Olovo lead mine in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where all processing occurred on site. The second deployment was at the Velicki Majdan processing site in Serbia, to process antimony ore from the nearby Zayaca mine.

The partners established boundaries within which to discuss what constitutes a ‘small deposit’, prioritizing the notion of ‘high-grade’. The researchers aimed to understand how small a deposit can be and remain viable to mine, and to gain some appreciation of the extent of opportunity for mining of small deposits in Europe. They adapted an existing search engine (EU-MKDP) that enables any end-users to identify and locate small, high-grade complex deposits. Europe is a region with a varied geological history, such that there are many and diverse small, high-grade ore deposits.

The partners interrogated the societal solutions that would facilitate the mining approaches (Sidorenko et al, 2020) and worked on prediction of environmental impacts (Knobloch and Lottermoser, 2020). Energy consumption reduction by selective mining, crushing and processing meant that the IMP@CT system could be powered as consistently and more cost-effectively in Europe by renewable energy provision, than by fossil fuels alone (Paneri et al, 2021). This is a significant development since the mining industry accounts for approximately 10% of world energy consumption. The environmental loads of mining are not limited to carbon emissions. The processing methods, the treatment of industrial water and the opportunity to use IMP@CT solutions to process and thereby remediate legacy wastes were all investigated. Life Cyclye analysis was perfomred from both environmental (Beylot et al, 2021) and societal (Mueller et al, 2021) perspectives.

The IMP@CT project showed that technical solutions are available now to accelerate decoupling of mining from negative environmental impacts and human well-being, in contribution to ambitious 2050 targets. The solutions will bridge the gap until more future-facing innovations are developed in the coming decades. However, the IMP@CT project also showed that small-scale mining solutions cannot succeed without reshaping of existing customary patterns of the governance of socio-economic impacts of mining. There are four key issues that must be addressed for the future development of small-scale mining on small, high-grade ore deposits in Europe:

  1. A positive relationship between mine and community must be prioritized, even in short-duration operations, underpinned by local micropolitical and cultural understanding.
  2. Permitting and licencing processes must continue to protect environment and society, while enabling mine operators to react swiftly to market opportunities.
  3. The role of short-duration mining must be placed within a diversified local or regional economic base, to protect the community from the withdrawal of the mining industry.
  4. Further innovation in handling of waste is required, since short duration mining operations must not create a long-term environmental legacy.
Some of the outputs of the IMP@CT project:  

Collaboration and communication

Of Earth - For Earth: The meaning of a mine

An art exhibition ‘Of Earth – For Earth’ at an international conference on sustainable mining was used as a forum to increase awareness of the importance of raw materials for society, the challenges related to their supply and proposed solutions for improved acceptance and trust. Both the conference and the exhibition were funded by the EU Horizon 2020 IMP@CT project (Grant no 730411), which aims to change the relationship between mining and society by creating new technological approaches to mining of European ore deposits. The objective of the exhibition was to create dialogues around how our modern behaviours demand that the extractive industries provide resources without damaging the planet, or our ability to inhabit it. The project invited artists to respond to the concepts of: mining for raw materials; telluric voids, the meaning of a mine; narratives of extraction; and the conversation between self, material consumption and Earth. The chosen works were exhibited at Heartlands, a former mine and current World Heritage Site, in Cornwall UK (9-12 March 2020) and/or taken forwards for inclusion in a publication to demonstrate the myriad responses of individuals to the issues surrounding extractivism.

Now 'Of Earth, For Earth: The meaning of a Mine' (Moore, Finch and Storrie, eds, 2020) is a 116-page full-colour, hardcover book, consisting of dialogue between artists, community representatives, industrialists and educators. It contains images from the exhibition, and many other artists have contributed to it with images and texts. It aims to inspire debate about human interactions with the Earth, while our consumption of resources grows ever larger and the environments on which we depend face an uncertain future. This book speaks to our sense of belonging to place, time, natural and cultural heritage. It describes the geologically grounded and contested places in which mining inspires our relationship with Earth and interrogates our commitment to change. Through dialogue and debate, perhaps we may unearth mechanisms to carve out a more sustainable relationship with the Earth while maintaining access to the resources that will support the global population.

Contributing writers and artists: Dan Pyne, Carlos Petter, Alan Smith, Louise K. Wilson, Dylan McFarlane, Adele Rouleau, Josie Purcell, Jack Hirons, Dominic Roberts, Olga Sidorenko, Penda Diallo, Frances Wall, Henrietta Simson, Dominika Glogowski, James Hankey, Kieran Ryan, Alison Cooke, Karin Easton, Chris Easton, Nic Barcza, Nic Clift, Djibo Seydou, Naomi Binta Stansly, Richard Martin, Oliver Raymond-Barker, Caitlin DeSilvey, Gill Juleff, Heidi Flaxman, Anshul Paneri, Cassia Johnson, Heather Wilson, Allie Mitchell, Joel Gill, Nic Bilham, Father Nicholas Barla, Julian Allwood, Art & Energy, Kathryn Sturman, Lucy Crane, Gareth Thomas, Vitor Correia, Luis Lopes, Stephen Henley.

Publisher: EU IMP@CT: 730411 
ISBN: 9781527276628

Time and Tide

Time and Tide is a working group comprised of academics (Gill Juleff, Archaeology - Streatham Campus; Nicola Whyte, History - Penryn Campus; Kate Moore, CSM - Penryn Campus), Perranzabuloe Museum Committee and members of the Perranzabuloe Parish Council. The aims of the working group are to raise awareness of local heritage and its value to modern society, and act to protect heritage for the benefit of the community. The parish lies at the edge of the mining World Heritage Site. It is the location of both the (potentially) oldest mine site in Cornwall and some of the most vulnerable mining heritage in Cornwall, which is at increasing risk of marine erosion through storm incidence, both of which are largely unrecognised. Gill Juleff has driven public communication events (2017-2019) under the banner 'Heritage on the Beach'. The group is actively collaborating to secure funding for projects after the end of the pandemic.

Critical metals

Critical Metals are the wide range of metals with specialist chemical and physical properties that are used in small quantities in the manufacture of low-carbon and emerging modern technologies. They are also the metals that are produced by a small number of countries, frequently with political and social infrastructures that create a substantial supply risk. The critical metals are included in assessments of critical raw materials by countires around the world. Importantly critical raw materials also include minerals and, in most recent lists, biotic materials such as natural rubber.

The critical metals include those that are mined as primary commodities and those that are produced as by-products at refineries. My research largely focuses on those critical metals that are produced as primary commodities. I investigate the geological processes that concentrate the critical metals in magmatic and magmatic-hydrothermal ore systems, often those related to carbonatites, alkaline rocks and granites. I am concerned with the issue of geological variability in ore deposits and how early reporting can be adapted to inform mining and processing challenges.

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